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Black Sea underwater archeology

 

Serhiy Voronov is head of the Department of Underwater Archeology of Ukraine; he not only works as administrator but takes part in underwater archeological expeditions. Mr Voronov was interviewed for Welcome to Ukraine Magazine by Anastasiya KOKHAN.

 

The southern shores of Ukraine are washed by two seas  the Sea of Azov and the Black Sea.

To scientists and to archeologists the Black Sea is a remarkable feature because its lower levels are, to all intents and purposes, almost biologically dead  not because of modern pollution but because of continued weak ventilation of the deep layers. Oxygen is dissolved only in the upper water levels; below a depth of about a hundred meters (three hundred feet), there is no oxygen; in those reaches the sea is contaminated by hydrogen sulfide, which results in a saturated, gloomy, dead zone frequented only by adapted bacteria.

Such conditions at the bottom of the sea are ideal for preserving in an almost intact condition the ships that sank in the past millennia. Not only the examination of the wrecks is of a great interest to historians  their cargos are of even a more valuable importance for archeologists and historians. Underwater archeology in the Black Sea is a rather recent development but it has already rendered many exciting finds.

How did you get interested in underwater archeology?

I was educated at a technical marine college and then at a history department of a university. I worked for some time as a sailor but then I got bored with the routine and felt I needed to do something more exciting. I was a scuba diving enthusiast and a step from scuba diving through history interests to underwater archeology was sort of a natural one.

Im afraid that in this country, and probably in many others, one should not expect any longer any important finds produced by the on-the-ground archeology  and not because there is little more to find in the ground preserved from the past ages, but because black archeologists (Mr Voronov refers to those diggers who illegally conduct archeological excavations and then sell the discovered artifacts at the black market; since these black archeologists are in most cases without any special education or training, they not only rob the historians of valuable finds but destroy all the related valuable historical and archeological information during their digging) seem to have dug up everything of any historical value. The situation in underwater archeology is not as bad but its getting worse, and we should hurry up in procuring for science and history whatever can still be salvaged.

The department I head was set up only four years ago, and since then we have accumulated enough finds for more than one museum.

Before we continue with your story about underwater archeology, may I ask you what motivated you to become a sailor?

Books! And, of course, a streak of sea adventure in my character which comes from I dont know where. I was an avid reader of books of adventures and seafaring. My mother, incidentally, was not too happy with my ambition to become a sailor Speaking of books  we do find books in the wrecks on the bottom of the sea. One of the most recent finds was a logbook that we discovered on board a navy ship at the depth of about 36 meters (over a hundred feet). The ship was sunk during the First World War, and its logbook tells us the story of the ship and its crew.

Who finances your archeological expeditions?

Money is always a problem. I spend a lot of time looking for donors, sponsors, enthusiasts and support, but miraculously I do find enough money for about fifteen expeditions of out of twenty planned.

Sometimes we just get lucky. When, for instance, we were engaged in a US-Ukrainian joint underwater archeological expedition off the coast of the Crimea, we invited the President of Ukraine, Viktor Yushchenko, who happened to be at that time in the Crimea to pay a visit to our ship. He did. We showed him our finds, we told him in detail about our work. He showed a lot of interest and promised to help. He did  the direct result of this help was the establishment of a museum which will be opened soon in Kyiv. Among the exhibits there will be Turkish and Italian artifacts of the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. A particularly valuable find to be exhibited will be a tea pot that dates from the seventeenth century.

Who usually takes part in your expeditions?

You mean who from the professional point of view? Usually, we need about six archeologists proper and about three experts who can do the work of conserving the finds and dating them.

Conserving?

Probably preserving would be a better word. You see, whatever ancient artifacts we find at the bottom of the sea and then bring them up, they are immediately exposed to oxygen and oxygen can destroy them, in some cases, in a matter of minutes. Iron and wood are particularly vulnerable. So we have to use some chemicals to literally preserve these artifacts from disintegration. Weve developed our own techniques and methods, and I think in this we are ahead of other countries of the Black Sea area which carry out some underwater archeology. There cant be universal recipes because the salinity of different seas and oceans is different, and in every individual case you have to use individual approach.

Do you have any plans for shooting a documentary about your work and your expeditions?

We provide all the information journalists want, weve had proposals to have a documentary made, but none of them has come to anything yet. Once in a while, this idea gets discussed, but no further moves follow. I think the main reason for the failure to have a movie made is the absence of guaranteed financing. And its a pity because Im sure a film about underwater archeology and our work would be of a great interest to many. There are amazing discoveries that have been made and that are waiting to be made. The unique physical conditions of the Black Sea  hydrogen sulfide  are excellent for preventing things that fall to the bottom from decay and disintegration for centuries. The absence of oxygen and consequently of any life is ideal for preservation. And in the past several millennia a lot of ships have sunk in the Black Sea. Not all of them are of archeological and historical value, of course. There is a special international convention that protects shipwrecks which are older than a hundred years, but Ive filed a proposal with UNESCO suggesting that ships that sank during the Second World War be also protected by law. Besides, many ships that sank or were sunk during the war had a lot of people on board and should be regarded as common graves.

Lets get back to your finds  what is the most ancient one?

Its in between seven and twenty million years old. No, its not an artifact, its bones of a very ancient rhino. Weve passed them for safe keeping to the Institute of Archeology of Ukraine Unfortunately, there is a problem with exhibiting our big-sized finds. Once, for example, we discovered and raised to the surface a very old plane. But, first, it had to be treated with chemicals to prevent it from falling apart, and second, insurmountable obstacle  a suitable place had to be found for exhibiting it.

But youve mentioned a museum that is to be opened?

Yes. I hope things will proceed according to plan, but big-sized finds are very difficult to move and ship long distances. Besides, theres this perennial problem with money. Once, we found a soviet WWII fighter plane with the remains of a pilot in it  all we could do was to bury the remains and return the plane to the bottom of the sea. Close to that place there rests on the bottom a sailing ship of the times of the Crimean War (mid-nineteenth century) in excellent condition, the only one of its kind known to date, and still a bit further away lies a passenger ship of more recent times. I think that underwater tourism in small subs could be organized to such sites.

But you do try to bring up from the bottom whatever you find of archeological interest and historical value  and of manageable sizes?

We sure do. You cant properly study an artifact at the bottom of the sea  but if it finds its way to a museum or a lab it can be thoroughly examined, its age can be determined with the use of modern technologies, and historians and general public can have access to it.

Do you organize exhibitions of your finds?

We do, and we take part in international exhibitions of various kinds as well. And not necessarily of underwater finds. This year, for example, we are going to provide whatever support we can for the Silver Shark Festival of underwater art, that is art literally created under water. We hope that Andre Laban, one of the members of the team of the famous underwater explorer Jacques-Ives Cousteau, will be able to attend the exhibition. (Jacques-Ives Cousteau, 19101997; French naval officer, marine explorer, author, and documentary filmmaker; in 1943 he and French engineer Emile Gagnan perfected the aqualung; Cousteau made full-length films, film shorts, and numerous television films, some of which won Academy Awards; Cousteau wrote many books, including a series entitled Undersea Discoveries of Jacques-Yves Cousteau). He is a superb underwater artist. Incidentally, his ancestors lived in Lviv.

We have recently had a book published in Ukraine, an encyclopedia of shipwrecks. In addition to a museum in Kyiv, we hope that a section of underwater archeology will be opened soon in the Marine Museum in Sevastopol.

 

Photos have been provided

by the Department of Underwater Archeology of Ukraine

 

Map of the Black Sea (Pontus Euxinus) in antiquity.

 

One of the ships used during the Black Sea

underwater archeological expeditions.

 

The bell from the British ship Agnes Blaikie

which was sunk in 1854 during the Crimean War.

 

One of the 200 amphorae which were found

on board an ancient Byzantine shipwreck being

chemically treated to prevent damage

by its exposure to the air.

 

The remotely controlled Hercules submersible

takes photos of ancient amphorae.

 

Cleaning up the artifact discovered

on the bottom of the sea.

 

Lifting of the ancient amphorae to the surface.

 

Amphorae from an ancient Byzantine shipwreck.

 

President of Ukraine Viktor Yushchenko and his wife

Kateryna visiting the ship during an underwater

archeological expedition led by S. Voronov.

 

A newly discovered shipwreck (possibly a British

ship Brente of the time of the Crimean war).

 

A close-up of the amphorae from

an ancient Byzantine shipwreck.

 

First examination of a shipwreck (the stam

of a possibly British ship Woodvell

of the time of the Crimean war).

 

Artifact preservation experts.

 

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